As a very young undergrad student at UCD I used to love my medieval history course. Although as I remember, the classes were on very early in the morning, I used to make a special effort to turn up to learn about life in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales in the 1300s and 1400s. To this day I still have an interest in Art McMurrough Kavanagh and the O'Neills of Tyrone, led by Niall Mór, Niall Óg and Henry 'the Contentious', and their wars with King Richard II of England who campaigned in Ireland twice in an unsuccessful effort to subdue these Gaelic kings.
Another theme of these classes which I still remember was the remarkable Gaelicisation of many of the Anglo-Norman families in Ireland at this time. These families were the descendants of Anglo-Norman conquerors who had settled in Ireland in the years after 1170, as the Anglo-Normans first conquered and settled Leinster and Meath and in the ensuing decades spread out into most parts of Ireland. The course showed us how the advance of the Anglo-Normans slowed in the late 1200s, due to the success of some of the Gaelic chieftains such as Godfrey O'Donnell of Tír Chonaill, who now had the use of heavily armed battalions of Scottish gallloglass warriors who were beginning to arrive in Ireland at this time. Plagues and famine then hit the Anglo-Norman population of Ireland during the 1300s leaving some Anglo-Norman families, particularly in Connacht and east Ulster, isolated and surrounded by increasingly powerful Gaelic Irish neighbours. Under this pressure and also due to ordinary neighbourliness, the Anglo-Normans began to adopt the Irish language and many other Gaelic Irish customs such as style of dress and manner of riding horses (The Irish did not use stirrups). Intermarriage between the Anglo-Normans and the Gaelic Irish was probably the most important mode of cultural influence. If an Anglo-Norman lord married an Irish noblewoman, their children would possibly be raised speaking Irish and would have extensive contact with their Irish in-laws. This process began right from the beginning of the arrival of the Anglo-Normans in Ireland when Strongbow, the original leader of the invaders married Aoife, the daughter of King Dermot McMurrough of Leinster.
By the mid 1300s the English authorities in Ireland were horrified by the Gaelicization of a large proportion of the Anglo-Norman population and tried to halt it with laws such as the Statutes of Kilkenny which tried to forbid the adoption of Gaelic Irish customs by people of Anglo-Norman descent. However, the pull of Gaelic culture was too strong and most of these laws were widely ignored. The result of this was that by the year 1400 the English crown had lost any authority over vast areas of Ireland, especially in Connacht, where the Anglo-Norman population became almost totally Gaelicised and refused to recognize English authority any longer. As a result of this, many Anglo-Norman families in Connacht, particularly the McWilliam Burkes of County Mayo, by the 1500s were absolutely indistinguishable from their Gaelic Irish neighbours. This fact led the English to come up with the phrase 'More Irish than the Irish themselves' to describe such families. What follows is a list of the most prominent Gaelicised Anglo-Norman families and the new Gaelic surnames they often adopted to fit in with Gaelic Irish society:
Bermingham - Mac Fheorais (now often Corish), Bissett - Mac Eoin (now McKeown), de Nangle - Mac Oisdealbhaigh (now often Costello), de Burgh - de Búrca (Burke) with many sub-clans also - McWilliam, McRedmond, McGibbon and Mac Seoinín (now called Jennings), Fitzmaurice - Mac Muiris, Savage - Mac an tSábhaisigh, Fitzgerald - Mac Gerailt and Nugent - Mac Nuinseann. There are many more.
Next week I hope to add a Tuesday blog also to my website, concentrating on more technical aspects of genealogy and website development. However, the Friday series will continue as normal.
It is often forgotten in the study of the history of Irish families in Medieval and Early Modern times that while some families and clans remained in the same localities for hundreds of years and may even today predominate in certain areas of Ireland, many other Gaelic and Anglo-Norman families spread out and travelled widely. The best example is obviously the massive settlement of people of Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon, or Welsh and Breton origin in mostly eastern areas of Ireland following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland after 1170 AD. But native Gaelic Irish families moved as well. The Anglo-Normans drove the O'Toole and O'Byrne families of the plains of Kildare into the Wicklow Mountains while during the course of the twelfth century famous Munster Gaelic families such as the McCarthys, O'Sullivans and O'Callaghans started off in the Cashel area of modern Co. Tipperary, being driven off to Cork City by the O'Briens and then further into the wilds of west Munster by the Anglo-Normans, where most McCarthys and O'Sullivans in Ireland are found today.
In a previous blog I wrote on the McCabe family I mentioned the spread of heavily armed mercenaries from Gaelic Scotland into the Gaelic Irish lordships in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. One of the most famous galloglass families were the McSweeneys who extensively colonized the western seaboard of Co. Donegal or the lordship of Tír Chonaill as the area was known in medieval and early modern times. The McSweeneys became essential to the survival and prospering of the O'Donnell lordship of Tír Chonaill, the family being to the fore in very many O'Donnell victories over their enemies, particluarly their hereditiary enemies, the O'Neills of Tyrone. However, it is often forgotten that in the late fifteenth century and throughout the sixteenth century the population of McSweeneys in Tír Chonaill began to grow and ambitious junior members of the family set off with companies of galloglasses to seek fame and fortune in the more southern provinces of Ireland. Companies of McSweeneys were hired by many of the major Connacht families, particularly the powerful Burkes of Clanrickard, and a McSweeney constable and his company of warriors also began to serve another powerful Gaelic lord in this region, O'Brien, lord of Thomond. However, it is the McSweeneys who went even further south to serve the various McCarthy chieftains in Gaelic Desmond, who I would like to discuss in this blog.
McCarthy Mór was the senior west Munster dynasty claiming to be Princes of Gaelic Desmond. McSweeney galloglass constables were prominent on both sides of a violent civil war which broke out amongst the McCarthy Mór nobles in the early sixteenth century. In 1508 Donal the McCarthy Mór died and a very bloody struggle for power ensued between his son Tadhg and brother Cormac Ladhrach. The annals say the fighting was so bad that the 'destruction of people' came from the McCarthy civil war 'for upwards of three hundred and sixty persons fell between them'. In 1513 Tadhg launched 'a treacherous attack' on a house Cormac Ladhrach was staying in, burning it to the ground. However, Cormac 'and his constable made their way out of the house, and slew Tadhg's constable'. When Tadhg died in his bed in 1514 the Gaelic annalists were astounded for they believed such a quiet death 'was not expected, he being a man who had destroyed more, and about whom more had been destroyed, than any that came of his tribe, within the memory of man'. Obviously Tadhg McCarthy was not a man to cross!
While serving the McCarthy clans, the McSweeneys of Munster became mortal enemies of and started a vicious fued with the galloglass constables of the Fitzgeralds of Anglo-Norman Desmond, the famous McSheehy family. The McSheehys were a powerful galloglass family who served the Earls of Desmond and they fought deadly encounters with their McSweeney rivals all over south and west Munster. For example in 1535 the McAuliffe chieftain of north Cork 'gained a great battle' over some cadet Fitzgerald lords 'in which were slain ... a large battalion of the Clan Sheehy'. On the side of the Gaelic army 'Mulmurry, son of Brian McSweeney, was slain in the commencement and fury of the conflict'. In the year 1560 two Fitzgerald nobles raided the McCarthy Reagh lordship of Carbry in west Cork. McCarthy Reagh's son Donough gathered his army which included 'a company of fine select galloglasses', commanded by a Turlough son of Mulmurry McSweeney, who was descended from the McSweeneys of Doe in Co. Donegal. The Fitzgeralds were defeated in a fierce encounter fought at Inishannon on the river Bandon in which over 200 Geraldine soldiers were killed. The fighting in this battle was so vicious that Turlough McSweeney 'lost a leg and an arm, so that he was supported only by a wooden leg from that time until his death'. As a result of his injuries this McSweeney was known as 'Turlough of the Wooden Leg' for the rest of his life'. He was killed in the gateway of the city of Cork in 1579.
An incident recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters for the year 1568 illustrates the professional rivalry between the McSweeney and McSheehy galloglass families. Lord Fitzmaurice of Kerry, a prominent adherent of the Earl of Desmond decided to rebel and end the Earl's overlordship over his territory which was in north Kerry. In 1568 the Earl's General, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald laid siege to Lord Fitzmaurice in his town of Lixnaw. Lord Fitzmaurice had a company of McSweeneys, again descended from McSweeney Doe, commanded by an Edmond son of Giolladubh McSweeney who 'was constable to Fitzmaurice at this time'. However McSweeney only had about fifty warriors with him as their period of service with Lord Fitzmaurice was up and the McSweeney galloglasses had begun to disperse. However, the Annals of the Four Masters record that Edmond McSweeney decided to stay with Lord Fitzmaurice with what ever soldiers were still at hand as 'they did not think it honourable to depart from Fitzmaurice, as this danger had overtaken him'. One night the McSweeneys urged Lord Fitzmaurice to 'attack the Clan Sheehy, for against them our enmity and indignation are greatest'. As a result an attack was made on the McSheehy part of the besiegers' camp with 'the Clan Sweeney ... placed in the van to make the onset'. The Annals of the Four Masters record that 'both parties made trial of the temper of their sharp spears, the strength of their battle-axes, the keeness of their swords, and the hardness of their helmets'. In this bitter fighting the McSweeneys killed Edmond Óg McSheehy, 'Chief Constable to the Geraldines, a wealthy and affluent man'. Murrough Balbh McSheehy was also killed and his brother Rory McSheehy captured.
In 1574 the McSheehys had some revenge when the Earl of Desmond defeated McCarthy Mór in battle and 'A young constable of the gentlemen of Clan Sweeney, namely, one of the sons of Donugh Bacach [was] slain'. As English power grew in the province of Munster, with the crushing of the rebellion of the last earl of Desmond, both the McSheehy and McSweeney galloglass families were targeted by the English authorities as dangerous elements of Munster Gaelic society to be eliminated. In 1576 the English executed 'two noble and valiant young constables of the descendants of Mulmurry son of Donough [McSweeney]', and in 1579 at the battle of Monasterernagh, a battle which broke the military power of the Earldom of Desmond, Owen son of Edmond Óg McSheehy, 'and a great number of the constables of the Clan Sheehy', were killed. When the Earl of Desmond was finally cornered and killed by the English near Tralee in 1583, Murrough Bacach McSheehy, died shortly afterwards and the annals recorded that 'some say that it was of greif for him [the earl of Desmond] he died'. By the 1580s 'a company of galloglasses of the McSheehys, who were the surviving remnant and remains of the slaughter of the galloglass of the Geraldines', were serving O'Rourke, the lord of Breifne (modern Co. Leitrim). At around the same time 'a company of soldiers, a party of the McSweeneys of Munster', were serving Turlough Luineach O'Neill, the Lord of Tyrone.
The records in the annals and English state papers for the last decades of the sixteeth century are sad reading for the end of the famous galloglass families of Munster. Wealthy, noble and accomplished, they were targeted by the English for expulsion or destruction. However, the story of the McSweeney galloglass families of Munster in particular, for the sixteenth century are also an excellent example of how a Gaelic family could spread from a home area in Tír Chonaill, to seek employment as mercenaries in the southern provinces of Ireland. To this day there are many McSweeneys living in Munster. They are living evidence of important migratory trends in early modern Ireland.