Many of my blogs have been concerned with the rise and fall of Gaelic Irish families in medieval west Tyrone and the north of the medieval lordship of Tír Chonaill. In this blog I would like to talk about the mysterious total disappearance of the O'Taircheirts, a prominent family in the Glen Swilly region from the late eleventh century to their last record in the Irish annals in the year 1232. As followers of my blogs know by now, the total disappearance of a once prominent Gaelic Irish family in this region is highly unusual as most families that disappear from the annals in the 1200s were often still present in their native localities (if in a much reduced condition) by the time of the Plantation of Ulster in 1610.
The O'Taircheirts were a branch of the people of Tír Chonaill called the Clann Snedhgile, descended from a man called Snedhgil who in turn was a descendant of Conall Gulban the ancestor figure of many of the inhabitants of medieval Tír Chonaill. The O'Strain family which is still numerous in north Donegal were closely related to the O'Taircheirts. The O'Taircheirts were the lords of the territory called Clanelly in medieval Tír Chonaill. This sub-lordship lay between the Leannan and Swilly Rivers and can be best seen today by following the coastal road from Letterkenny to Ramelton.
The family are first mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters in 1098 when Eigceartach O'Taircheirt was killed in a battle fought between the armies of Tyrone and Tír Chonaill at the famous ford over the River Swilly the Fearsat-Suilighe. In 1113 Donnchadh O'Taircheirt the Chief of Clanelly was killed by the McLoughlins of Tyrone and in 1129 the O'Taircheirts burnt 'the house of Columcille at Kilmacrennan' over the head of a local noble called Hugh O'Donnell. The O'Taircheirts appear to have backed the O'Dohertys rather than the O'Donnells to become lords of Tír Chonaill. In the year 1197 Eachmarcach O'Doherty became the only lord of Tír Chonaill from that family. He was supported in his chieftain-ship by Donough O'Taircheirt the Chief of Clanelly. O'Doherty had only been lord of Tír Chonaill for two weeks when he was attacked by the Anglo-Norman Baron John De Courcy who invaded northern Tír Chonaill and killed both Eachmarcach O'Doherty and Donough O'Taircheirt at the battle of Cnoc Nascain. The Annals of the Four Masters refer to Donough O'Taircheirt as 'the prop of the hospitality, valour, wisdom and counsel of all the Cinel Conaill'. He was obviously a very important figure.
The death of Donough O'Taircheirt in 1197 is not the last time the family is referred to in the annals. In 1212 Gillareagh O'Taircheirt the lord of Clanelly was killed by the O'Boyles and in the year 1232 Donal McLoughlin the king of Tyrone took hostages from the O'Boyle and O'Taircheirt families after he plundered the Fanad peninsula. The family are never mentioned in the annals again.
Nevertheless one would have expected the family to survive as a local erenagh family or to have migrated further west into Tír Chonaill where the surname would probably have been recorded as O'Taggart. However the family simply disappear. Any of the pardon lists from the early 1600s that I have examined and that provide such good evidence for many other Donegal families have no record of any O'Taircheirts or O'Taggarts. Perhaps the family died out like one of the ruling families of Tír Chonaill before the O'Donnells - the Ó Maoldoraidh dynasty. Fergus Gillespie an authority on Donegal families could only find evidence of one O'Mulderry farmer recorded in Inver parish in the early 1800s. I had thought that the other pre-O'Donnell Tír Chonaill ruling dynasty Ó Cananáin had also died out but there are a few O'Cannon nobles (as the surname became) recorded as supporters of Red Hugh and Rory O'Donnell in 1603. (Eneas Gruama O'Cannon and Donal and Conor O'Cannon. Donal and Eneas Gruama O'Cannon were pardoned again in 1611 along with a Hugh O'Cannon - all in north Donegal).
So what became of the O'Taircheirts? Again I think that the answer lies with the arrival of the McSweeney mercenaries in northern Tír Chonaill in the late 1200s and early 1300s. As I have previously written the traditional sixteenth century history of the McSweeneys of Fanad 'The Craobhsgaoileadh Chlainne Suibhne' preserves memories of violent conflict with local native families such as the O'Breslin lords of Fanad. The Craobhsgaoileadh also states that the McSweeneys seized 'O'Maolgaoithe's tuath' another family that I talked about last week. The Craobhsgaoileadh Chlainne Suibhne also records conflict between the first McSweeneys to land in Fanad and the O'Taircheirts of Clanelly. According to this source the McSweeneys took Ray and Clanelly from the O'Taircheirts as 'éiric for Turlough of Béal Atha Daire'. Turlough of Béal Atha Daire was one of the first McSweeneys to land in Tír Chonaill. However, he is probably a legendary figure as he was among the first group of McSweeneys who came to Tír Chonaill that were expelled by the native inhabitants before the 'second' settlement of McSweeneys landed that eventually took hold. Turlough McSweeney was reputedly killed by the natives of Tír Chonaill at a battle fought at Béal Atha Daire, a site possibly on the River Swilly. The O'Taircheirts are not mentioned, only the O'Donnells and the O'Dohertys. An éiric however, was a compensatory payment for death or more usually murder, important in Gaelic Irish law. The entire legend suggests a confused memory of the killing of one of the early McSweeney settlers by the O'Taircheirts and the subsequent dispossession of the family by the McSweeneys of Fanad. Clanelly did not remain with the McSweeneys. It was later taken by the O'Donnells for the tánaiste of Tír Chonaill.
There is no actual record of a massacre of the O'Taircheirts by the McSweeneys. However, the Craobhsgaoileadh states that when the second invasion of McSweeneys reached 'the calm beautiful haven of Swilly. They sent out scouting parties in all the districts on every side of them, and they slew their kings and princes and lords, so that their nobles all perished and their hostages were taken'.
The only other reference to the O'Taircheirt family in the Craobhsgaoileadh Chlainne Suibhne is to a placename called 'Léim I Thirchirt - O'Taircheirt's Leap' that was 'on the borders of Fanad and the termon [of Kilmacrennan]'. I am not sure what the placename refers to but the place may have been the site of the fortress of the O'Taircheirt chieftain.
If anyone has any information on the later survival of this family I would be very glad to hear from them.
Post Script (July 2013):
While reading through some O'Donnell genealogies recently I came across a record that may solve the mystery. This note states that an O'Donnell noble called Domhnall who was the grandson of Domhnall Óg O'Donnell, the powerful lord of Tír Chonaill who was killed in battle by the O'Neills in 1281 (his father was called Niall Beag), 'had one famous son, Gofraidh son of a daughter of Ó Terchirt'. This genealogical note indicates that Domhnall O'Donnell, who must have lived during the early 1300s married the daughter of the O'Taircheirt chieftain. The note suggests that the O'Taircheirts were still prominent in Tír Chonaill a century after they are last mentioned in the annals, although they were probably not as powerful as they were around 1232. These O'Donnell genealogies also record that quite a few branches of the O'Donnell dynasty died out in late medieval times, which is probably what eventually happened to the O'Taircheirts. It is possible that Gofraidh O'Donnell took over the leadership of the O'Taircheirt territory, perhaps by agreement as the son of O'Taircheirt's daughter and his branch of the O'Donnells may have remained prominent in the Clanelly area (especially its more western districts) until the end of the fifteenth century or even longer.
Weekly Genealogy Blog by Dr Darren McGettigan
After a short break it is good to be back with my weekly Genealogy Blog.
Families were constantly on the move in medieval and early modern Ireland. Successful and expanding clans conquered new areas and the ruling family might move to establish themselves in a fertile or strategic area.
It is often forgotten in the study of the history of Irish families in Medieval and Early Modern times that while some families and clans remained in the same localities for hundreds of years and may even today predominate in certain areas of Ireland, many other Gaelic and Anglo-Norman families spread out and travelled widely. The best example is obviously the massive settlement of people of Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon, or Welsh and Breton origin in mostly eastern areas of Ireland following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland after 1170 AD. But native Gaelic Irish families moved as well. The Anglo-Normans drove the O'Toole and O'Byrne families of the plains of Kildare into the Wicklow Mountains while during the course of the twelfth century famous Munster Gaelic families such as the McCarthys, O'Sullivans and O'Callaghans started off in the Cashel area of modern Co. Tipperary, being driven off to Cork City by the O'Briens and then further into the wilds of west Munster by the Anglo-Normans, where most McCarthys and O'Sullivans in Ireland are found today.
In a previous blog I wrote on the McCabe family I mentioned the spread of heavily armed mercenaries from Gaelic Scotland into the Gaelic Irish lordships in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. One of the most famous galloglass families were the McSweeneys who extensively colonized the western seaboard of Co. Donegal or the lordship of Tír Chonaill as the area was known in medieval and early modern times. The McSweeneys became essential to the survival and prospering of the O'Donnell lordship of Tír Chonaill, the family being to the fore in very many O'Donnell victories over their enemies, particluarly their hereditiary enemies, the O'Neills of Tyrone. However, it is often forgotten that in the late fifteenth century and throughout the sixteenth century the population of McSweeneys in Tír Chonaill began to grow and ambitious junior members of the family set off with companies of galloglasses to seek fame and fortune in the more southern provinces of Ireland. Companies of McSweeneys were hired by many of the major Connacht families, particularly the powerful Burkes of Clanrickard, and a McSweeney constable and his company of warriors also began to serve another powerful Gaelic lord in this region, O'Brien, lord of Thomond. However, it is the McSweeneys who went even further south to serve the various McCarthy chieftains in Gaelic Desmond, who I would like to discuss in this blog.
McCarthy Mór was the senior west Munster dynasty claiming to be Princes of Gaelic Desmond. McSweeney galloglass constables were prominent on both sides of a violent civil war which broke out amongst the McCarthy Mór nobles in the early sixteenth century. In 1508 Donal the McCarthy Mór died and a very bloody struggle for power ensued between his son Tadhg and brother Cormac Ladhrach. The annals say the fighting was so bad that the 'destruction of people' came from the McCarthy civil war 'for upwards of three hundred and sixty persons fell between them'. In 1513 Tadhg launched 'a treacherous attack' on a house Cormac Ladhrach was staying in, burning it to the ground. However, Cormac 'and his constable made their way out of the house, and slew Tadhg's constable'. When Tadhg died in his bed in 1514 the Gaelic annalists were astounded for they believed such a quiet death 'was not expected, he being a man who had destroyed more, and about whom more had been destroyed, than any that came of his tribe, within the memory of man'. Obviously Tadhg McCarthy was not a man to cross!
While serving the McCarthy clans, the McSweeneys of Munster became mortal enemies of and started a vicious fued with the galloglass constables of the Fitzgeralds of Anglo-Norman Desmond, the famous McSheehy family. The McSheehys were a powerful galloglass family who served the Earls of Desmond and they fought deadly encounters with their McSweeney rivals all over south and west Munster. For example in 1535 the McAuliffe chieftain of north Cork 'gained a great battle' over some cadet Fitzgerald lords 'in which were slain ... a large battalion of the Clan Sheehy'. On the side of the Gaelic army 'Mulmurry, son of Brian McSweeney, was slain in the commencement and fury of the conflict'. In the year 1560 two Fitzgerald nobles raided the McCarthy Reagh lordship of Carbry in west Cork. McCarthy Reagh's son Donough gathered his army which included 'a company of fine select galloglasses', commanded by a Turlough son of Mulmurry McSweeney, who was descended from the McSweeneys of Doe in Co. Donegal. The Fitzgeralds were defeated in a fierce encounter fought at Inishannon on the river Bandon in which over 200 Geraldine soldiers were killed. The fighting in this battle was so vicious that Turlough McSweeney 'lost a leg and an arm, so that he was supported only by a wooden leg from that time until his death'. As a result of his injuries this McSweeney was known as 'Turlough of the Wooden Leg' for the rest of his life'. He was killed in the gateway of the city of Cork in 1579.
An incident recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters for the year 1568 illustrates the professional rivalry between the McSweeney and McSheehy galloglass families. Lord Fitzmaurice of Kerry, a prominent adherent of the Earl of Desmond decided to rebel and end the Earl's overlordship over his territory which was in north Kerry. In 1568 the Earl's General, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald laid siege to Lord Fitzmaurice in his town of Lixnaw. Lord Fitzmaurice had a company of McSweeneys, again descended from McSweeney Doe, commanded by an Edmond son of Giolladubh McSweeney who 'was constable to Fitzmaurice at this time'. However McSweeney only had about fifty warriors with him as their period of service with Lord Fitzmaurice was up and the McSweeney galloglasses had begun to disperse. However, the Annals of the Four Masters record that Edmond McSweeney decided to stay with Lord Fitzmaurice with what ever soldiers were still at hand as 'they did not think it honourable to depart from Fitzmaurice, as this danger had overtaken him'. One night the McSweeneys urged Lord Fitzmaurice to 'attack the Clan Sheehy, for against them our enmity and indignation are greatest'. As a result an attack was made on the McSheehy part of the besiegers' camp with 'the Clan Sweeney ... placed in the van to make the onset'. The Annals of the Four Masters record that 'both parties made trial of the temper of their sharp spears, the strength of their battle-axes, the keeness of their swords, and the hardness of their helmets'. In this bitter fighting the McSweeneys killed Edmond Óg McSheehy, 'Chief Constable to the Geraldines, a wealthy and affluent man'. Murrough Balbh McSheehy was also killed and his brother Rory McSheehy captured.
In 1574 the McSheehys had some revenge when the Earl of Desmond defeated McCarthy Mór in battle and 'A young constable of the gentlemen of Clan Sweeney, namely, one of the sons of Donugh Bacach [was] slain'. As English power grew in the province of Munster, with the crushing of the rebellion of the last earl of Desmond, both the McSheehy and McSweeney galloglass families were targeted by the English authorities as dangerous elements of Munster Gaelic society to be eliminated. In 1576 the English executed 'two noble and valiant young constables of the descendants of Mulmurry son of Donough [McSweeney]', and in 1579 at the battle of Monasterernagh, a battle which broke the military power of the Earldom of Desmond, Owen son of Edmond Óg McSheehy, 'and a great number of the constables of the Clan Sheehy', were killed. When the Earl of Desmond was finally cornered and killed by the English near Tralee in 1583, Murrough Bacach McSheehy, died shortly afterwards and the annals recorded that 'some say that it was of greif for him [the earl of Desmond] he died'. By the 1580s 'a company of galloglasses of the McSheehys, who were the surviving remnant and remains of the slaughter of the galloglass of the Geraldines', were serving O'Rourke, the lord of Breifne (modern Co. Leitrim). At around the same time 'a company of soldiers, a party of the McSweeneys of Munster', were serving Turlough Luineach O'Neill, the Lord of Tyrone.
The records in the annals and English state papers for the last decades of the sixteeth century are sad reading for the end of the famous galloglass families of Munster. Wealthy, noble and accomplished, they were targeted by the English for expulsion or destruction. However, the story of the McSweeney galloglass families of Munster in particular, for the sixteenth century are also an excellent example of how a Gaelic family could spread from a home area in Tír Chonaill, to seek employment as mercenaries in the southern provinces of Ireland. To this day there are many McSweeneys living in Munster. They are living evidence of important migratory trends in early modern Ireland.
The arrival of well armed mercenaries (gallóglaigh ~ foreign warriors), to Ireland from the Gaelic Highlands and Islands of Scotland in the late medieval period, greatly contributed to the growth in the military power of the major Gaelic Irish chieftains who could afford to hire a galloglass constable with his company of warriors and reward them with grants of land and many other priviledges.